GRAMMAR

Verb tenses - Present perfect

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How to form it: (has/have) + (past participle)

Examples: She has spoken, We have seen

THE BIG PICTURE: This is one of the most confusing tenses in English. It links the past to the present day. Use it to:

  1. Talk about actions or conditions that started in the past and continue to the present. The condition is still true to this day.
    Example 1: The Smiths have lived in the same house since 1975.
    Example 2: Mike has been a fan of The Rolling Stones for many years.
    Example 3: Jane has had the flu since last Monday.


  2. Talk about actions or states that occurred at an unspecified time (or multiple times) in the past. An unspecified time is signaled by such words and phrases as: in the past, never, ever, many times, so far.
    Example 1: Iíve been to Prague many times.
    Example 2: So far this year, weíve had twelve snow days at our school.


  3. Talk about experiences or conditions.
    Example 1: Susan has never been to Iceland.
    Example 2: Have you ever seen a panda bear? - No, Iíve never seen one.


  4. Emphasize change over time.
    Example 1: Youíve grown several inches since I saw you last.
    Example 2: Have you seen any good movies since we last spoke?
   
 
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